Chrysodidymus cells reproduce asexually by binary fission, with mitotic division of the nucleus.

Cells about to divide normally separate from each other. Occasionally a dividing cell remains temporarily attached to its partner, leading to a transiently three-celled colony. New flagella appear prior to cell division and migrate to their positions in the resulting two-celled colony.

The mitotic spindle consists of two cones of microtubules, each of which is attached to small plaques that may be, or be derived from, the rhizoplast that emanates from each basal body pair during interphase. At metaphase, the nuclear envelope is visible only on the posterior side of the nucleus (the spindle is "partially open"), nor is the nucleolus visible.

The known features of mitosis are consistent with what has been observed in other "synurophyte" golden algae.

No sexual reproduction has been observed.

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