*    *
               *    ******    SOCIETY FOR
               *    ******    EVOLUTIONARY
               *    *
                    ******    PROTISTOLOGY

          EMAIL NEWSLETTER no. 6  -  16 October 1995

In This Issue:

      1)  Editor's Note
      2)  President's Message
      3)  List of Current Members 
      4)  Annual Meeting 1995
      5)  ISEP-12: Asilomar!
      6)  PHYLIP package on World Wide Web
      7)  Phycological Society of America Listserver
      8)  News of Colleagues
      9)  Upcoming Meetings 
     10)  Membership Form
     11)  New Book Announcement
     12)  The Second Element

1)  Editor's Note
     Charley O'Kelly, Newsletter Editor

We're back!

Regrettably, I had been unable to keep up with Newsletter duties
due to a (northern) summer hiatus from science.  Now that I've
returned, things should flow a bit more smoothly.

My new address (also found in the Officers list of the ISEP
World Wide Web archive):

     Division of Environmental Biology
     National Science Foundation
     4201 Wilson Boulevard, Room 635 
     Washington, DC  22230
          tel: (1) 703 306 1481, ext. 6417
          fax: (1) 703 306 0367
          email: cokelly@nsf.gov

this oughta be a change from New Zealand :-).

Despite the gap in communication, we've not been entirely

As you'll see below, we've assembled what we hope is
an up-to-date membership list; we ask for your help in
getting and keeping this list current and correct ... and
whether you think the list should be archived on the 
World Wide Web.  

The Web site itself is full of new links, especially to 
funding sources (Money Hunt page) and meetings (Upcoming
Meetings page: a new trend emerging?).  If you've not
visited lately, check it out.

A number of our Officers and Members have changed, or are
about to change, locations or communication information.

As always, if you have a bit of news to share, please send it

Hope all's well with you and yours!

2)  President's Message 
     Mark Ragan

Dear colleagues,

Summer has gone (at least for those of us in the northern latitudes),
and we've passed the halfway point between ISEP-10 and ISEP-11.  It's
not too soon to reserve 9-13 August 1996 on your calendar for 
ISEP-11 in Cologne (Koeln), Germany.  For more information contact
ISEP-11 organizer Michael Melkonian  and
watch ISEP's newsletters and Web site.

ISEP is indeed wired into the Infobahn:  check out our Website at
 if you haven't done
so already.  Copies of our newsletter, information on upcoming
conferences, addresses and phone numbers of our officers and more,
all made from 100% guaranteed recycled electrons, are posted there.

For those of you who haven't visited our Website, this is our sixth
newsletter since ISEP-10.  In addition to being posted on the ISEP
Website, these newsletters have been e-mailed to all ISEP members for
whom we have a functioning e-mail address.  We're fortunate in having
a plugged-in membership, so almost everyone should have received the
newsletters.  However, a few members aren't reachable by e-mail, and
for those of you who haven't alternatively logged into our Website:
yes, ISEP is still alive and well, and I personally apologize for the
lack of contact you may have had with us over the past year.

At long last we have what we believe is a complete, up-to-date list
of the ISEP membership with each member's name, postal address,
office telephone and fax numbers, e-mail address, and date of
expiry.  It would make a lot of sense for this list to be posted on
our Website, e.g. as <.../members.html>.  Yet there's a privacy issue
here -- perhaps you don't want your phone number listed on the
Internet (mine has been listed there for a year, and no-one has
phoned to sell me encyclopedias or hot modems...).  Anyone feeling
strongly about this matter (positively or negatively) should e-mail
Charley O'Kelly or myself:

   What information about members should be posted on our Website?

   name. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yes____  No____
   institutional postal address. . . . . . Yes____  No____
   institutional telephone number. . . . . Yes____  No____
   institutional fax number. . . . . . . . Yes____  No____
   e-mail address. . . . . . . . . . . . . Yes____  No____
   date of expiry of ISEP membership . . . Yes____  No____

Is there other information that we should be posting on the ISEP
Website?  If so, send your suggestions to Charley or me.

We also have a list (names only) of people whose ISEP membership has
expired.  Although it includes the names of many illustrious
protistologists (even some current officers of ISEP!), inclusion on
this list shouldn't be your goal.  Membership dues support our
newsletter other activities, help us publicize upcoming meetings, and
provide a little insurance against contingencies.  Elsewhere in this
newsletter you'll find a list of names of paid-up members.  If your
name isn't on this list, your membership has probably expired; please
contact our Treasurer, Gary Saunders (gws@unb.ca).

You'll notice from the address above that Gary Saunders has completed
his move from Melbourne to Fredericton, New Brunswick.

[Details in the News of Colleagues section of this Newsletter, and
on the Officers page of the ISEP WWW archive - Ed.]

During the next few weeks the Treasurer's responsibilities will 
gradually shift from Jerry Motta, who's provided exemplary service
for numerous years, to Gary.  On behalf of all ISEPers, here's a 
hearty Thank You to Jerry!

In other news, Sue Douglas (Canadian councillor) and I have been
delighted to have ISEP's Councillor-at-large, Geoff McFadden, with us
here in Halifax for the past several months.

Gustav Fischer Verlag (Villengang 2, 07745 Jena, Germany), publisher
of the special ISEP-10 issue of Archiv fur Protistenkunde (edited by
Tom Cavalier-Smith, Michael Melkonian and Steve Moss), informs me
that they still have plenty of copies of the special issue for sale
to ISEP members and ISEP-10 registrants at the special price of DM
82.  Their fax number is (49)-3641-626500.

Similarly, I still have a few copies of the ISEP-10 group photo.
Drop me an e-mail  if you want one (no cost).

At ISEP-10, the Executive asked me, in my role as Manager of ISEP's
"head office" (a semi-formality for purposes of our incorporation as
a legal entity), to begin to assemble a library of past ISEP special
issues.  Our ISEP library now contains one shiny new issue of the
ISEP-10 special issue; donations of unused or duplicate copies of
previous ISEP special issues, or indeed other historical information
pertaining to ISEP, would be welcome.

The Executive also asked me to prepare plaques or scrolls for our
newly elected Honorary Life Members, John O. Corliss and I. Brent
Heath.  I'm embarassed to admit that I haven't arranged these yet,
but promise to do so in time for ISEP-11 (if not before).

If there are any suggestions, comments or other feedback about ISEP
or matters protistological, don't hesitate to contact me or any other
member of the ISEP Executive.  That's why we're here!

3)  ISEP Members List 
       ISEP Executive Committee

If you've gotten this Newsletter via email or WWW, and you're
name's not here, we don't have you on record as a currently
(through June 1995) paid-up member.  This doesn't necessarily 
mean you haven't paid, only that we don't have a record of 
it :-).

We welcome your membership! please contact me (cokelly@nsf.gov) 
or Mark Ragan (mark@imb.Lan.nrc.ca) to check on your status.

New members always welcome!

BARR Donald J.S.
BURGER Gertraud
CHAPMAN Russell L.
DINET Marie-Joseph
DOLAN Michael
DYER Betsey
FERRIS Patrick
GIBBS Sarah P.
GOGGIN C. Louise
GRAY Michael W.
HALLICK Richard B.
HANNAERT Veronique
HEATH I. Brent
KERK David
LANG B. Franz
LUDUENA Richard F.
LYNN Denis H.
MARTIN William
McQUADE A. Bruce
MIGNOT Jean-Pierre
MOTTA Jerome J.
MuLLER Bodo E.G.
MuLLER Miklos
NERAD Thomas A.
O'KELLY Charles
PIENAAR Richard N.
SENSEN, Christoph
SILFLOW Carolyn D.
SLEIGH Michael A.
TAN Lor-wai
TEAL Thomas
TURMEL Monique
WALNE Patricia
WEE James
WILSON R.J.M. (Iain)
WRIGHT Andre-Denis G.
ZHOU Yi-Hong

4)  Annual Meeting 1995 
     Mark Ragan

ISEP's articles of incorporation and by-laws require us to hold an
Annual Meeting.  The 1994 meeting was, of course, held during ISEP-
10, as the 1996 meeting will be during ISEP-11.  In intervening
years, the Annual Meeting takes the form of a telephone conference
call among the Canadian counsellors (ISEP is incorporated in Canada).
Sue Douglas, Franz Lang and I shall therefore be teleconferencing on
Friday, 8 December 1995 at 11:30 AM (Halifax time) -- 10:30 AM
(Montreal time).  Sue, Franz or I would be glad to put on the agenda
any specific items raised by any member of ISEP.  Indeed, the
"meeting" is open to any member of ISEP who wishes to link in.
Please contact me for further details .

5)  ISEP-12: Asilomar!
       ISEP Executive Committee

The votes are in, and the decision's taken.  ISEP-12, in 1998, will
be held at Asilomar, California.  Lynda Goff and Lynn Rothschild
(listed in alphabetical order) will be the martyr ... er, organizers.

The Exec has asked Lynda and Lynn to set the date for the meeting,
put together a provisional Organizing Committee, draft a tentative
theme with schedule and speakers, and present a road show at ISEP-11.

We had three excellent bids to choose from - Athens,
Georgia (Mark Farmer), and Australia (Melbourne vicinity; Geoff McFadden)
were the other two - and the vote was a close one.  Hey, at least
you guys get to relax and -enjoy- the meeting now.  Many thanks for
your labors.

6) PHYLIP on World Wide Web
       Joe Felsenstein, Department of Genetics, 
       University of Washington, Box 357360,
       Seattle, WA  98195-7360, USA

[from the bionet.molbio.evolution Usenet newsgroup - Ed.]

We have set up a World Wide Web (WWW) site for the PHYLIP Phylogeny
Inference Package.  It describes various aspects of the package and its
distribution, and allows the user to download the latest distributions
and register as a user.

Its URL is:  http://evolution.genetics.washington.edu/phylip.html

Graphical net-browsers such as Netscape and Mosaic should be able to 
take full advantage of its features, but character-oriented browsers 
such as Lynx may not be able to.

[Shortly, I will build into the ISEP WWW Archive a separate page 
providing links to online resources for phylogenetic analysis.
Joe's page will be on it.  - Ed.]

7) Phycological Society of America Listserver
       Paul Kugrens
       Professor, Department of Biology
       Colorado State University
       Fort Collins, CO 80523
          email: pkugrens@lamar.colostate.edu
          tel: (1) 970 491 7551
          fax: (1) 970 491 0649

The Phycological Society of America has established a subscription
 list on the Internet using ListServ at Colorado State University
 to facilitate conducting society related business and other functions
 among its members.  Currently, membership includes only PSA members,
 and this initial subscription list contains all PSA members for
 whom correct E-mail addresses are known. The Executive Committee
 decided at this year's meeting that memberhsip on this list will
 not be restricted to PSA members and non-members are welcome to
 join. The PSA list is intended to facilitate communications among
 members to conduct society business more efficiently and to promote
 interactions among members by sending announcements, job opportunities,
 new book descriptions, registration information and forms for meetings,
 and possibly abstracts of the annual meeting.  Currently there are
 more than 590 members on our list.  The list is not moderated (censored),
 therefore some self restraint should be exercised in your comments
 and replies.  Membership is not obligatory, and any member can subscribe
 or unsubscribe at any time by following the simple instructions
 provided in the information section of this message.  Instructions
on sending messages are also provided.  Please save these instructions
 for future reference.

One of the primary functions of ListServ is to provide a mechanism
 for distributing mail messages to a group of people sharing a common
 interest.  Furthermore, ListServ distribution lists are an effective
 way to manage dynamic mailing lists of a large number of recipients.
  Once a list is established anyone on the list can send a message
 and thus this service becomes interactive. List subscribers have
 a convenient way to make announcements, to poll members about a
 certain topic, to ask questions, to promote events, books or new
 products, or to participate in any discussions regarding a topic
 proposed by any member.

If you know of any PSA members or non-members who have e-mail but
 may not be subscribers to this list, we would appreciate your cooperation
 by informing these individuals  about our list and how they can


1.  Subscribing.  Send an E-mail message to: 


        Your e-mail message does not need a subject, it must be in
 the body of the message and contain only one line as follows.

                subscribe PSA firstname lastname
        For example:

                subscribe PSA Jane Doe

2.  Unsubscribing.  Send an E-mail message to:


        Your e-mail message does not need a subject, it must be in
 the body     of the message and contain only one line as follows:

                unsubscribe PSA

3.  Sending messages.  If you want to send a message to all subscribers
 of the list, send a message to :


If you need to know whether your message was sent, and you wish to
 receive a copy of the message, you can add yourself as a cc: recipient
 to messages you send.

4.  Responses to messages

When you respond to a message, respond only to the person who sent
 the message, not ListServ or PSA.  If you merely specify Reply,
 then everyone on the list will receive your message.  So please
 be considerate and do not burden the entire listing with a response
 meant only for one person.

5.  Problems.  If you have any problems or questions, you may contact
 Paul Kugrens, who is the manager of this list.  His e-mail address
 will always be listed in the heading.

[Rick McCourt, editor of the PSA Newsletter, tells me that
there will soon be a PSA WWW page, too.  When it comes
online, I'll let you know.  The British Phycological 
Society already is on the Web:


                                        - Ed.]

8)  News of Colleagues

Founding Member Wins Award

Max Taylor (maxt@unixg.ubc.ca) writes:

  "A monograph entitled -A classification of Living and Fossil 
   Dinoflagellates", published last year by the American
   Museuem of Natural History (Micropaleontology Special Publication 7)
   has earned Rob Fensome, Max Taylor, Geoff Norris, Bill Sarjeant, 
   Dave Wharton and Graham Williams a Golden Trilobite Award from 
   The Paleontology Society.

 good on ya mate, and sorry it took so long for me to get this good
 word out.  I'll have to get my copy now!


Tim Littlejohn Moving to Sydney, Australia

  Tim Littlejohn will be joining the Australian National Genomic Information
  Service (ANGIS) in November 1995.  He will continue to play a role in the
  ISEP WWW site and in other Internet-based protistology projects, such as the
  Protist Image Database.  He can still be reached at tim@bch.umontreal.ca
  or at ANGIS directly at tim@angis.su.oz.au


Changes to Officers's Addresses

     Mark A. Ragan
     NRC Institute for Marine Biosciences
     1411 Oxford St
     Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3Z1
          tel: (1) 902 426 1674
          fax: (1) 902 426 9413
          e-mail: mark@imb.Lan.nrc.ca
[Mark's email has not changed ... but mail received from him
may carry the address "mark.a.ragan@nrc.ca" in the header.  
Use of this address may lead to loss of your mail ... so ignore 
"mark.a.ragan..." and use "mark@imb...."  -Ed.]

     OEjvind Moestrup
     Department of Phycology 
     University of Copenhagen
     OEster Farimagsgade 2D
     DK-1353 Copenhagen K
          tel: (45) 33 32 67 69
          fax: (45) 33 14 57 19
          e-mail: moestrup@bot.ku.dk

TREASURER (1995-1996)
     Gary W. Saunders
     Department of Biology
     University of New Brunswick
     Bag Service #45111
     Fredericton, N.B.  E3B 6E1
          tel: (1) 506 453 4582
          fax: (1) 506 453 3583
          e-mail: gws@unb.ca        

     Geoff McFadden
   Permanent Address
     School of Botany
     University of Melbourne
     Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia
          tel: (61) 3 344 5053
          fax: (61) 3 347 1071
          e-mail: mc_fadden@botany.unimelb.edu.au
   Sabbatical Address
     NRC Institute for Marine Biosciences
     1411 Oxford Street
     Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada  B3H 3Z1
       see Mark Ragan for communication info

     Charles J. O'Kelly
     Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences
     P. O. Box 475
     West Boothbay Harbor, ME  04575
          tel: (1) 207 633 9600 
          fax: (1) 207 633 9641
          e-mail: okellyc@bch.umontreal.ca

     Working address 2 October 1995 - 30 September 1996 or later:

     Division of Environmental Biology
     National Science Foundation
     4201 Wilson Boulevard, Room 635 
     Washington, DC  22230
          tel: (1) 703 306 1481, ext. 6417
          fax: (1) 703 306 0367
          email: cokelly@nsf.gov

9)  Upcoming Meetings

Only new items are listed in this Newsletter.  A complete listing is
available in the Upcoming Meetings section of the ISEP WWW Archive.

Have I missed a meeting of interest?  Drop me a line!

Revised Entries

Eighth International Congress of Culture Collections (ICCC-8)

Both the dates and the venue have changed.

   Dates:  25-29 August 1996
   Venue:  Veldhoven, The Netherlands
           email: CONGRESS@KONINGSHOF.NL 
           WWW:   http://www.wdcm.riken.go.jp/ICCC8 
                  (the ISEP Archive has a Hypertext link 
                   to this page)


10th International Congress of Protozoology - 1997

The dates have now been established: 21-25 July 1997.
Get further details from:
     Professor D.J. Patterson
     School of Biological Sciences
     Zoology A08
     University of Sydney
     Sydney, NSW 2006
        tel:   (61) 2 351 2438
        fax:   (61) 2 351 4119
        email: paddy@extro.ucc.su.oz.au 

New Entries

6 - 9 March 1996

Annual Meeting, Section of Phycology, German Botanical Society
Hofgeismar, Germany

     Prof. Dr. W. Reisser
     Department of Botany
     University of Leipzig
     Talstrasse 33
     D-04103 Leipzig
       fax: (49) 341 960 3099


27 May - 1 June 1996

Seventh International Conference on the Cell and Molecular Biology of

Investigators interested in participating are invited to submit abstracts
by January 31, 1996.  Please send requests for registration and abstract
materials to:

     Chlamydomonas Conference
     Dr. Ruediger Schmitt
     Institute for Genetics
     University of Regensburg
     D-93040 Regensburg
          tel: (49) 941 943 3162
          fax: (49) 941 943 3163
          email: rudy.schmitt@biologie.uni-regensburg.de
          WWW: http://www.uni-regensburg.de/aktuelles/chlamyconf.html
               (the ISEP WWW Archive has a hypertext link to this


14-19 July 1996
50th Anniversary Meeting of the Phycological Society of 
America.  University of California, Santa Cruz.
     Prof. Lynda Goff
     Department of Biology
     Earth and Marine Science Building
     University of California
     Santa Cruz, CA 95064
          tel: (1) 408 459 2832
          fax: (1) 408 459 4882 
          email: goff@orchid.ucsc.edu

10)  ISEP Membership Form

The International Society for Evolutionary Protistology welcomes
all persons interested in the diversity, taxonomy, phylogeny and
evolution of protists.  Here's how to join:

[ 1 ]  Make a hard copy of the form below.

[ 2 ]  Airmail it, with your dues, to the ISEP Treasurer.

[ 3 ]  Send Tim Littlejohn (tim@bch.umontreal.ca; after 1 November,
	tim@angis.su.oz.au) or Charley O'Kelly
	(cokelly@nsf.gov) a message to let us
	know you've signed up.

Step [ 3 ] is optional, but it really helps us to keep our records

[snip] - - [snip] - -  [snip] - - [snip] - - [snip] - - [snip] 



Postal address:

City, state/province, country:

Postal code:

Telephone number:

Fax number:

E-mail address:

Membership dues are US$ 25 (*) for two years.

[  ] I enclose for ISEP membership for the years 199__ through

   ____ .



(*) Please remit US$ 25 per two years' membership to:

       Dr Gary W. Saunders
       Department of Biology
       University of New Brunswick
       Bag Service #45111
       Fredericton, N.B.  E3B 6E1

   Payment may be made by personal cheque (within the USA),
    bank money order or bank draft, international money order,
    or postal money order.

   Currently, payment must be made in U.S. dollars.

   We can accept payment for two, four, or more years. 

[snip] - - [snip] - -  [snip] - - [snip] - - [snip] - - [snip] 

11)  New Book Announcement
     Prof. Dr. Klaus Hausmann
     Institute of Zoology
     Department of Protozoology
     Free University of Berlin 
     Koenigin-Luise-Strasse 1-3
     D-14195 Berlin, GERMANY
       tel: (49) 30 838 6475
       fax: (49) 30 838 6477
       email: hausmann@fub46.zedat.fu-berlin.de

by Klaus Hausmann and Norbert Huelsmann
(Free University of Berlin
Institute of Zoology
Department of Protozoology)
2nd ed., Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart & New York
336 figures with 772 drawings and photographs, 338 pages
hard cover, DM 148,-
ISBN 3-13-1103019 (GTV, Stuttgart, Germany), and
ISBN 0-86577-571-0 (TMP, New York, USA)

F 0 R E W 0 R D
John 0. Corliss
Professor Emeritus
University of Maryland

In this day and age of ever-increasing interest in the "lower" eukaryotes
- the protists - there is a pressing need for a general textbook that will
 accomplish two principal goals.  Eager students are demanding a clear 
exposition of the most modern advances in biochemical and molecular 
biological research on these fascinating microorganisms. At the same 
time, they want to know what the unicellular algae and protozoa actually 
look like under the microscope as whole organisms, and what roles they 
may play in the overall bionomics of life on Earth.  Such young biologists 
are in luck, for the present volume appears to meet those two criteria 
admirably, and more besides!

Authors Hausmann and Huelsmann are abundantly well qualified to carry out 
the objectives mentioned above.  Their own numerous cytological (including 
ultrastructural) investigations on a diversity of protists are highly 
respected by the protozoological community, and their recent forays into 
various physiological, ecological, systematic, and evolutionary areas have 
also resulted in significant contributions to the research literature.  
Their Leeuwenhoekian and Ehrenbergian love for their "wee beasties" is 
clearly evident throughout the book and is beautifully manifest in the 
several films that they have produced.

Readers will recall an earlier (1985) edition of Hausmann's Protozoologie
and may wonder about differences between that and this newer version.  
In addition to the obvious fulfillment of "up-dating" in every area treated, 
there are several outstanding features that deserve brief mention.  Most 
delightful to many budding protozoologists/protistologists around the world, 
it must be confessed, is the appearance of the new edition in the English 

There are more than 100 additional pages of text, and each page is larger 
in size.  There are also over 100 additional plates of figures, giving the 
reader a better visual understanding of both whole organisms and of their 
numerous organelles as seen in sectioned ultrastructural material.  Many 
of the figures are original, prepared purposely for use in this textbook.  
There are line drawings, life cycle outlines, etc. in addition to strikingly 
attractive photo- and electronmicrographs.  The authors have even been 
bold enough to present a phylogenetically-based classification of the 
protistan groups covered in this book.  Undoubtedly, we shall be seeing 
revisions in this controversial area in the future, with availability of 
still newer molecular data, but it is salutary to note changes over the 
past and to see where we stand at the moment in this exciting field of 
evolutionary protistology.

Hopefully, this Foreword (if read!) will forewarn and foretell the student what to expect: 

so, go ahead, turn the page!

12)  The Second Element 
     Charley O'Kelly

take a shot and lighten up :-)

I welcome submissions - any funny stories from your own experience
or culled from another non-copyrighted source.

this one I'd saved up from earlier in the year ... perhaps it's
outdated now, or you've heard it a million times, but I couldn't
resist regardless.


Perhaps you've read, or heard about, the April 1995 issue of
-Discover- magazine, which revealed "Hot-headed naked ice borers",
a novel Antarctic vertebrate, to an astonished world.  These
creatures, which resembled a nightmare version of naked mole rats
(computer graphics tools are wonderful inventions), were supposed
to use a 110-degree (Fahrenheit, I think) modified forehead to melt
ice under penguins ... when the tunnel collapsed, the penguin fell
in and was devoured.

It took awhile for some folk to realize that "hot-headed naked ice
borers" were really fish.  April fish.  As French speakers know, an
April fish is what the unsuspecting may stumble upon during the first
day of April.  One ingenious person found a scientific way of exposing
the hoax, and distributed it on the bionet.parasitology Usenet
newsgroup (I have edited the grammar somewhat):

> I presented the ice-borer story to some 9th-grade high school science
> classes. They swallowed the story, hook, line, and sinker - no
> dissenters at first.  We discussed the probable life histories,
> ecology, etc. of the animals, always with the teacher working the
> discussion towards energetics.  Finally, we considered the energy
> required for an ice borer to to melt ice tunnels, and the energy
> available from the food source (penguin burgers, hold the
> condiments and rolls).

> Basic ingredients for energetics scenario:

> 1 Cal = 10^3 cal =  4x10^3 Joules

> a quarter-pound penguin burger = 3x10^2 Cal
        (assume penguin = duck)

> 3x10^2 Cal/burger x 4x10^3 J/Cal = about 10^5 J/burger

> Tunnel to catch a penguin estimated to be (on average) 2m; diameter 6cm

> Tunnel volume = 2x10^3 cm (l) x pi(3cm)^2 = about 5.4x10^4 cm^3

> At about 3x10^2 Joules/cm^3 to melt ice,
        need 1.6x10^7 J to melt tunnel

> Divided by Joules/penguin burger = 1.6x10^2 qtr-lb burgers

> which is 40 lb penguin meat, which sounds to me like two medium-sized
> penguins.

> Now, any iceborer that needs to eat two penguins to catch one
> penguin does not have a favorable future!

> Whereas some may argue that packs of ice borers follow one another
> in the tunnels, I would counter that my energy calculations leave
> out energy needed to maintain body temp in face of steep temp gradient
> from sub-zero ice to ice water to hairless body, and energy needed to
> move/feed/breed/feed young ice borers.

> It was illustrative to students to see that estimation, math, and
> simple physical properties could be used to determine the veracity
> of the ice-borer story.

Nuts.  And I had my grant to study the protistan parasites of these things
more than half written!  Oh, well.